I dont think so, just more power added and more space. The main difference is when you pull the power up in a 152 you dont lean back in you're seat at all just sit strait up. 172 you get a little pressure and are pinned back slightly, and then in a 182 after been flying a 152 most of the time you're like wooooo...My compariosn there.
In my opinion, the biggest difference is in the seating position and the perspective looking out of the front windshield. The seating position in the 172 is upright as compared to the lower position of the 152. A good analogy is the difference between the driving position of a car and a van. Also, the cowl of the 172 slopes down giving the impresion that the aircraft is in a descent.
I've been flying the 172SP for instrument training and occasionally go back to the 152 for little day trips. The 152 needs less back pressure on the control wheel during rotation and initial climb, and much less nose-down trim. Also, you notice the bumps more in light winds.
Thirty-five years ago when I was doing my initial training, it had all been in the 150 -- all 9.5hrs. Going out to the airport, I just knew that TODAY was going to be the big day -- 1st solo. When I got there, the airplane I had booked had suddenly gone hors de combat . My instructor said not to worry, we'd take one of the 172's. My hopes for solo sank.
Off we went. Twenty minutes in the practice area doing air work, then back to the airport, two landings later he told me to take him back to the FBO. He got out and said, "...its' all yours, do two touch & go's and a full stop". I did. He was waiting with the scissors.... No, there isn't a great deal of difference.
In looking back over my log books, some 8,400+ hours later, I can only find two other entries for the C-150 after that day.
I just made the change over from a 150 to a 172. They are a lot alike. You just have more power with the 172, which is vey nice because the 150's are very underpowered. The approach speeds and your flare is a little different in the 172 but nothing you wont have down after a few landings.